A Comparative Study of the Stages of Journey towards God in Mehr Creed and Yoga School

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Religions and Mysticism, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Iran

2 Master's Student in Religions and Mysticism, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Iran


Soluk (the journey towards God) in its general meaning is the process of spiritual evolution and breaking away from the apparent world and joining the sacred world, which has been common in various religions in different ways from the distant past. Iran and India, due to their cultural affinities as well as their deep and almost similar worldview, have adopted profound methods to achieve the highest spiritual status. Iranian Mehr and Mithras creed have long sought to go through the seven stages of soluk, that is, complete departure from selfishness and absorption in the sun of truth and joining Mehr. The school of yoga, by imposing difficult austerities and going through eight stages, has provided the possibility of spiritual evolution to reach the position of Samadhi (the state of meditative consciousness). To this end, the abandonment of carnal attachments and the renunciation of worldly life, the school of Yoga and the creed of Mithras/Mehr have proposed methods, each of which has had its own global effects. These methods are sometimes similar, and sometimes have differences, that stem from the worldview, soluki thinking, and esoteric perceptions of the founders of these two creeds. The research findings show soluk and soluki thinking is one of the fundamental systematic reflections in the ancient Eastern traditions that is effective both in terms of theory and theoretical life and in terms of practice and practical life.


Bahar, Mehrdad. 1997. Az Ostureh ta Tarikh (From Myth to History), Tehran: Spring. [in Farsi]
Bahar, Mehrdad. 2018. Jastari Chand dar Farhang Iran (A Few Researches in Iranian Culture), Tehran: Aware. [in Farsi]
Beck, Roger. 2007. "Mithraism", in: The Culture of the World's Religions, Edited by John Hinels, Translated by Translators Group, Qom: Religions. [in Farsi]
Biruni, Abureyhan. 2012. Resaleh Patanjal, Translated & Interpreted by Borzu Ghaderi, Tehran: Niyakan. [in Farsi]
Boyce, Mary. 2005. "Naghsh Mehr dar Din Zardoshti (The Role of Affection in Zoroastrian Religion)", Translated by Ahmad Reza Ghaem Magghami, in: Affection in Ancient Iran and India, Edited by Babak Alikhani, Tehran: Ghoghnus.
Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendra Mohan. 2015. Moarrefi Maktab-hay Falsafi Hend (Introduction to Indian Philosophical Schools), Translated by Farnaz Nazerzadeh Kermani, Qom: University of Religions and Denominations. [in Farsi]
Chehardehi, Nur al-Din. 1983. Maktab Yug wa Neshast-hay Hashtad o Cheharganeh An (The Yoga School and Its Eighty-Four Sessions), Tehran: Gutenberg. [in Farsi]
Clauss, Manfred. 2000. The Roman Cult of Mitras, Translated by Richard Gordon, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Cumont, Franz. 2014. Ayin Por Raz wa Ramz Mitrayi (The Mysteries of Mithras), Translated by Hashem Razi, Tehran: Bahjat. [in Farsi]
Dasgubta, Surendranth. 1957. A History of Indian Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dasgupta, Surendranath. 2016. Seyr Tahawwol Erfan Hendi (Hindu Mysticism), Translated by Abolfazl Mahmudi, Tehran: University of Religions and Denominations & Samt. [in Farsi]
Eliade, Mircea. 2005. “Yoga”, in: Encyclopedia of Religion, Edited by Lindsay Jones, second edition, vol. 14, Thomson, Gale.
Eliade, Mircea. 2016. Tarikh Andisheh-hay Dini (A History of Religious Ideas), Translated by Behzad Saleki, Tehran: Parseh. [in Farsi]
Eliade, Mircea. 2017. Yoga Patanjali, Translated by Ali Sadeghi Shahpar, Tehran: Parseh. [in Farsi]
Esfandiyar, Keykhosro. 1983. Dabestan Mazaheb (Primary School of Religions), Edited by Rahim Rezazadeh Malek, Tehran: Tahuri. [in Farsi]
Foltz, Richard. 2011. Gozar Manawiyat az Iran Zamin (Transition of Spirituality thorough Iran), Qom: Religions. [in Farsi]
Fontana, Daivd. 2006. Rawanshenasi Din wa Manawiyat (Psychology, Religion and Spirituality), Translated by A. Sawar, Qom: Religions. [in Farsi]
Gordon, Richard. 2005. "Mithraism", in: Encyclopedia of Religion, Edited by Lindsay Jones, Second Edition, vol. 9, Thomson, Gale.
Hinnells, John. 2017. Shenakht Asatir Iran (Persian Mythology), Translated by Jaleh Amuzgar & Ahmad Tafazzoli, Tehran: Spring. [in Farsi]
Humbach, Helmut. 2006. "Mitra dar Hendustan wa Moghnan Henduyi (Mithras in India and the Hindu Mughans", in: The Religion of Mehr in the Ancient World: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mehr Studies, Translated by Morteza Saghebfar, Tehran: Tus. [in Farsi]
Jalali Naini, Seyyed Mohammad Reza. 1993. Rig Woda, Tehran: Silver. [in Farsi]
Jug Basasht (Yoga Vasistha). 1981. Translated by Nezam Banipati, Edited by Seyyed Mohammad Reza Jalali, Naini & N. S. Shukla, Tehran: Eghbal. [in Farsi]
Mazhjo, Nina. 2021. “Being Mithraist: Embracing Other in the Roman Cultural Milieu”, in: Community and Identity at the Edges or the Classical World, Edited by Aron W. Irvin, US: Wiley Blacwell.
Merkelbach, Reinhold. 2015. Mitra: Ayin wa Tarikh (Mitra: Religion and History), Translated by Tofigh Golizadeh & Maliheh Karbasiyan, Tehran: Stars. [in Farsi]
Mir Ahmadi, Maryam. 2014. Tarikh Tahawwolat Iranshenasi dar Doran Bastan (History of Developments in Iranology in Antiquity), Tehran: Asatir. [in Farsi]
Olanci, David. 2008. Pajuheshi No dar Mitraparasti (New Research in Mithraism), Translated by Maryam Amini, Tehran: Spring. [in Farsi]
Patanjal. 2016. Hasti bi Kushesh: Yuga Sutereh-hay Patanjali (Yogasutra, Effortless Being: The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali), Translated into English by Alistair Shearer, Translated into Farsi by A. Pashayi, Tehran: Fararawan.
Prophyry. 1917. On the Cave of the Nimphs, Translated by Thomas Taylor, London.
Purdawud, Ibrahim. 1998. Yasht-ha, Tehran: Asatir. [in Farsi]
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli. 2015. Tarikh Falsafeh Shargh wa Gharb (History of Philosophy Eastern and Western), Translated by Khosro Jahandari, Tehran: Scientific & Cultural. [in Farsi]
Sadeghi Shahpar, Ali. 2010. "Marateb Samadehi dar Maktab Yugay Patanjali (Degree of Samadhi in Patanjali Yoga School)", in: Religions, yr. 4, no. 8, pp. 37-56. [in Farsi]
Salimi, Mina. 2016. "Mehrparasti (Worship of Mehr)", in: Religions and Denominations in Ancient Iran, Tehran: Samt. [in Farsi]
Shaygan, Dariyush. 2010. Adyan wa Maktab-hay Falsafi Hend (Religions and Philosophical Schools of India), Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Farsi]
Shokri, Hushang. 2015. Ayin Salahshuri (Chivalry), Tabriz: Freemen. [in Farsi]
Shorthaym, Almar. 2008. Gostaresh Yek Ayin Irani dar Orupa (The Spread of an Iranian Religion in Europe), Translated by Nadergholi Derakhshani, Tehran: Thaleth. [in Farsi]
St. Jrom. 1933. Selected Letters, Translated by F. A. Wrigt, M. A, London: Willism Heinemann.
Svatmarama. 2020. Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika, Translated by Jalal Musawinasab & Bita Hedayati, Tehran: Fararawan. [in Farsi]
Tabrizi, Mohammad Hosey ibn Khalaf. 1963. Borhan Ghate (Conclusive Argument), Edited by Mohammad Moin, Tehran: Ibn Sina Bookstore. [in Farsi]
Vermaseren, Maarten. 2014. Ayin Mitra (Mithras), Translated by Bozorg Naderzadeh, Tehran: Spring. [in Farsi]
Vyasa. 1907. The Yoga Darshna, The Sutras of Patanjli with the Bhasya of Vyasa, With notes from Vachaspata Misrs and Others, Trans: Gangaatha Jha, Bomby.
Yamauchi, Edwin M. 2014. Iran wa Adyan Bastani (Iran and Ancient Religions), Translated by Manuchehr Pezeshk, Tehran: Ghoghnus. [in Farsi]
Zaehner, R. C. 2005. Tolu wa Ghorub Zartoshtigari (The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism), Translated by Teymur Ghaderi, Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Farsi]