Examining Hossein Ali Shah Isfahani's Theological Method in Refuting Padori

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Research Associate, Islamic Education and Health Sciences Interdisciplinary Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Theology, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran


The emergence of Islam as an abrogator of previous religions provoked the reactions of other religions, especially Christians who considered Islam as a rival religion. These reactions and encounters increased particularly with the advent of colonialism and were revealed in the form of conversations, debates, and writing treatises against each other. The book "Refutation of Padori", written by Hoseyn Ali Shah Isfahani, is one of the important refutations in response to the claim of the Westerners. This refutation is an answer to the words of Henry Martin, known as Padori, who traveled to Iran as an agent of the Christian Missionaries Association. In this book, important issues such as the denial of the prophetic miracle, the differences between Christianity and Islam, and the slanders against the character of the Prophet of Islam have been answered. After a brief review of Henry Martin's political and preaching life, the present article examines Isfahani's theological method. In addition to Isfahani's words, this paper deals with the findings of other scholars in the field of theology and history. The results show that Isfahani had a special emphasis on the beliefs of the other party and answered Padori's objections by relying on rational arguments, using allegorical arguments and theological rules. However, sometimes he did not consider all aspects and hence controversial arguments can be seen in his work..


Main Subjects

The Holy Quran
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