A Study of Spinoza’s Philosophical Approach to Religion and Its Theological Consequences

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student, Comparative Philosophy, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Faculty of Theology, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

2 Associate professor, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Faculty of Theology, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Moral Philosophy, Faculty of Theology, University of Qom, Qom, Iran



For Spinoza, religion is a universal and meta-ethnic system actualized for all people through obedience to God. He delineates the seven principles of faith in this context. Spinoza contends that religious doctrines should be simple, minimal, and rooted in history and language. Given his belief that human nature is predominantly influenced by emotions rather than reason, he asserts that religion must be initially reclaimed and ultimately democratized to rescue humanity. According to Spinoza, the key to salvaging most humans lies in rendering religion obedient by distinguishing it from philosophy. Thus, he advocates for the democratization of theology, leading to a moderation of the political authority of religion and a strengthening of the country's political sovereignty. Spinoza's redefined concept of religion is fundamentally democratic, fostering compatibility between his theology and politics. This distinctive characteristic paves the way for the attainment of freedom for individuals and society. This article aims to explore Spinoza's alternative philosophical interpretation of religion and its theological implications within this framework.


Main Subjects

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