عنوان مقاله [English]
Victor Turner (1920-83) is regarded as both the master of ethnography and one of the most creative minds in the field. He is almost single handedly responsible for transforming the anthropology of religion from an inflexible social science into a humanistic field that could bring religious practices to life. Living several years (December, 1950 to February, 1952 and May, 1953 to June, 1954) among some primitive Zambia tribes, he gathered many experiences based on which he could issue novel theories regarding religion and rituals. Turner offered a fruitful set of tools to discover the meanings of ritual performances. Turner's analysis of symbols and rituals and their role in changing social situations as well as his deep psychological investigations was an important advance in anthropological studies. Although, according to Turner, original rituals and religious practices are rarely encountered in industrialized societies, they are still regarded as a part of people's life in some regions including Iran. Thus, recognition of Turner's views not only opens a new window to scholars of the filed, but also promotes our perception of a heritage which has lost its value and profundity due to its routineness and availability.