تحلیلی بر شکل معابد هندو و نقش اسطوره در شکل‌گیری نقشه و نمای معابد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه هنر و معماری، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

10.22034/jrr.2022.303528.1920

چکیده

هند یکی از سرزمین‌هایی است که مهد بسیاری از باورها، اندیشه‌های مذهبی و فلسفی جوامع انسانی بوده است. دایره و مربع از جمله فرم‌های بنیادین در هنر و معماری عهد باستان به شمار می‌رود که در طراحی معابد هندو به کار رفته است. هندسه مقدسی که در معابد هندو استفاده شده، بر پایه دانش مشهوری به نام واستوشاستره است. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی‌تحلیلی انجام شده، و هدفش مطالعه دانش هنر مقدس مَندله و تأثیر آن در شکل‌گیری و گسترش فضاهای معماری معابد هندو است. این پژوهش به این نتیجه می‌رسد که از دو نظر می‌توان معابد هندو را بررسی کرد. از دیدگاه نخست، معابد از منظر زیرساخت و نحوه اجرای نقشه آنها مطالعه می‌شود که در این منظر، اجرای دستورهای واستوپوروشَه مَندله از ملزومات آن بوده است. دیدگاه دوم معابد را از لحاظ نما و تزیینات آن مورد مطالعه قرار می­دهد. حاصل مطالعه نشان می‌دهد که تحولات اعمال‌شده در روبنای معابد، متأثر از اساطیر و کهن‌الگوهای هند بوده و فرم و محتوای این روبنا بیانگر مفاهیم اسطوره‌ای است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of the Form of Hindu Temples and the Role of Myth in Shaping the Map and Facade of Temples

نویسنده [English]

  • Ahmad Heydari
Assistant Professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

India is one of the lands that have been the cradle of many beliefs and religious and philosophical ideas of human societies. Circles and squares are among the basic forms in ancient art and architecture that have been used in the design of Hindu temples. The sacred geometry used in Hindu temples is based on the famous knowledge known as Vastu Shastra. The current research was carried out with a descriptive and analytical method, and it aimed to study the knowledge of the sacred art of Mandala and its effect on the formation and expansion of the architectural spaces of Hindu temples. This research came to the conclusion that Hindu temples can be examined from two perspectives. From the first view, temples were studied in terms of infrastructure and the way their maps were executed. From this perspective, the implementation of the instructions of Vastu Shastra Mandala was one of the requirements. The second view is in terms of their form and facade decorations. The result of the study showed that the changes applied in the superstructure of the temples were influenced by Indian myths and archetypes and the form and content of this superstructure expressed mythical concepts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mandala
  • Mandir
  • Hindu Temples
  • Northern Style
  • Southern Style
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